Galego: Extensión e xeografía da Galiza castrexa, xunto con localización das oppida (elaborado a partir de Rodríguez Corral, J. A Galicia. View Academics in Cultura Castrexa on A cultura castrexa (Historia de Galicia) [Francisco Calo Lourido] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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The cities are surrounded by a number of smaller castros, some casstrexa which may have been defensive outposts of cities, such as Castro de Laundos, that was probably an outpost of Cividade de Terroso.
Retrieved 22 December casttrexa These villages were closely related to the open settlements which characterized the first Bronze Age, frequently established near the valleys and the richer agricultural lands. Sometimes, human remains have been found in cists or under the walls, implying some kind of foundational protective ritual. The religious pantheon was extensive, and included local and pan-Celtic castreca. With the exception of the Grovii people, Pomponius Mela stated that all the populi were Celtic and Cosus was not worshipped there.
Baths or sauna at Punta dos Prados hill-fort, OrtigueiraGalicia. Southern Culturaa Bracaresescomprising the area of the oppida, fultura composed of cultua civitates: Retrieved 26 April Pre-Roman peoples established into Spain. In coastal areas, fishing and collecting shellfish were important activities: Bandua, Reue and Nabia were worshipped in the core area of Lusitania including Northern Extremadura to Beira Baixa and Northern Lusitania and reaching inland Galicia, the diffusion of these gods throughout the whole of the northern interior area shows a cultural continuity with Central Lusitania.
Under Roman influence the tribes or populi apparently ascended to a major role, at the expense of the minor entities. Carthaginians Phoenicians Turduli Baetici. Five main types are produced, all of them in granite stone: The Canary Islands were not occupied by the Romans, the peoples of cutura islands until the arrival of the Castilians were the Guanches.
Votive inscription to Cosus: At the same time, the archaeological register shows, through the finding of large quantities of fibulaepinspincers for hair extraction, pendantsearringstorcsbraceletsand other personal objects, the ongoing importance of the individual and his or her physical appearance.
As stated, while Bronze Age economy was based on the exploitation and exportation of mineral local resources, tin and copper and on mass production and long range distribution of prestige items, Iron Age economy was based on an economy of necessity culturs,  as most items and productions were obtained in situor interchanged thought short range commerce.
Funerary rites are mostly unknown except at few places, such as Cividade de Terrosowhere cremation was practised. Castro metallurgy refined the metals from ores and cast them to make various tools.
Mining castrwxa an integral part of the culture, and it attracted Mediterranean merchants, first Phoenicianslater Carthaginians and Romans. More numerous are the votive inscriptions dedicated to the autochthonous CosusBanduaNabiaand Reue. The votive altars containing this dedications frequently present three holes for gifts or sacrifices.
Cosus, a male deity, was worshipped in the coastal areas where the Celtici dwelt, from the region around Aveiro and Porto to Northern Galicia, but seldom inland, with the exception of the El Bierzo region in Leon, where this cult has cultur attributed  to the known arrival of Galician miners, most notably from among the Celtici Supertamarici.
Old reused stone slab, now in exposition in Formigueiros, AmoeiroGalicia. A csstrexa stone reused in a 6th-century Suevic church in Dume, Braga. Strabo wrote that the people of northern Iberia used boats made of leather, probably similar to Irish currachs and Welsh coraclesfor local navigation.
Castro desde arriba – Picture of Parque Arqueoloxico Da Cultura Castrexa, Ourense
Supporting the idea, no evidence has been found of any women worshipping at any of the monuments dedicated to Cosus. Nabia had double invocation, one male and one female. A sculpted stone reused in a 6th-century Suevic church in Dume, Braga Old reused stone slab, now in exposition in Formigueiros, AmoeiroGalicia.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Bandua had a warlike character and a defender of local communities. In the 1st century AD, more thanpeople were living in the main area of the Castro culture, in hill forts and oppida. Hundreds of Latin inscriptions have survived with dedications to gods and goddesses. At the same time, these houses and groups tended to occupy most cultuta the internal room of the hill-forts, reducing the communitarian open spaces, which in turn would have been substituted by other facilities such as saunas communitarian halls, and shared forges.
Large quantities of acorns have been found hoarded in most hill-fortsas they were used for bread production once toasted and crushed in granite stone mills.
Castro style pendant earrings from the “Tesouro Bedoya”, found near Ferrol Galicia. Hallstatt D, dated by means of its fibulae from to BC Revista eumesa de estudios. A romanized castroat Viladonga, Castro de ReiGalicia. Celtici of Arunda Cempsi Mirobrigenses.
The Vila do Conde city hall managed to obtain its Cividade’s land area only inafter 60 years of negotiations and legal confrontation. From a theonymical point of view, this suggest some ethno-cultural differences between the coast and inland areas.
File:Cultura – Wikimedia Commons
A votive sacrificial axe, ornate castrexaa torcs. Not only did the number of settlements grow during this period, but also their size and density. Decorative motifs include rosettestriskelionsswastikasspiralsinterlacesas well as palm tree, herring bone and string motives, many of which were still carved in Romanesque churches, and cultjra still used today in local folk art and traditional items in Galicia, Portugal and northern Spain.
The artificial defences were initially composed of earthen walls, battlements and ditches, which enclosed an inner habitable space. Torque de Foxados, Museo de PontevedraGalicia. Conceptualising Space vultura Place: These oppida were generally surrounded ccastrexa concentric ditches and stone walls, up to five in Briteiros, sometimes reinforced with towers.
Triskelion of the oppidum of Coeliobriga Galicia. Retrieved from ” https: The Castro culture emerged during the first two centuries of the first millennium BCE, in the region cultuea from the Douro river up to the Minhobut soon expanding north along the coast, and east following the river valleys,  reaching the mountain ranges which separate the Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula from the central plateau or meseta.
It was the result of the autonomous evolution of Atlantic Bronze Age communities, after the local collapse of the long range Atlantic network of interchange of prestige items.