The. Extended. Phenotype. The Gene as the Unit of Selection. Richard Dawkins. University of Oxford. Oxford University Press. Richard Dawkins offers a controversial reinterpretation of that idea in The Extended Phenotype, now being reissued to coincide with the publication of the. The idea of the extended phenotype (EP), which was first proposed by the British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins to explain how and why organisms—or.

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Clearly, co-developing partners may induce epigenetic variations in each other. Anyone who wants to say anything about Dawkins should read this first.

Of these three categories, it richard dawkins the extended phenotype the EP of constructions that has been most widely known and studied so far. It encompasses the idea that the behavioral phenotype of the host can be manipulated by the parasite even if it is not physically associated with the host. The rabbit runs faster than the fox, because the rabbit is running for his life while the fox is only running for his dinner.

For example, a more sturdy nest can provide better shelter for young birds. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. No other writer cuts through conceptual confusion caused by verbal ambiguity like Dawkins.

Articles, Diagrams, and Videos. Hamilton saw that to use fitness in this sense could lead to wrong predictions about how the frequencies of genes richard dawkins the extended phenotype populations would change — i. Niche construction theory goes further than the EP by suggesting that many organisms within an ecosystem can alter the selective pressures on all of them by modifying their environment in various ways—not necessarily to their own immediate advantage.

Jablonka goes even further, as she proposes that Darwinian evolution has been driven as much by adaptation of ecosystems as it has by genetic sequences Jablonka, He pointed out that if a gene were to cause its possessor to sacrifice its life in order to save the lives of several relatives, there might be more copies of the gene present afterwards than if the sacrifice had not been made, because relatives might carry copies of the gene inherited from a common ancestor.

The third form of extended phenotype is action at a distance of the parasite on its host. Academic Skip to main content. Genes are in charge, pursuing their self-interest; the body and its behavior is their vehicle; and the germ-line replicator is the unit of selection. Humans have used selec To view it, click here. The main idea is that phenotype should not be limited to biological processes such as protein biosynthesis or tissue growth, but extended to include all effects that a gene has on its environment, inside or outside the body of the individual organism.


The Extended Phenotype is a book by Richard Dawkinsin which richard dawkins the extended phenotype author introduced a richard dawkins the extended phenotype concept of the same name. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Richard dawkins the extended phenotype. It’s clear that Dawkins’ critics, who label him an “Ultra-Darwinist” [whatever that is] haven’t read this book.

Turner defined this gap as a paradox in which, by creating their own environment, organisms are in effect adapting to themselves.

Richard Dawkins, The Extended Phenotype

I enjoyed especially the chapter on Outlaws and Modifiers, the Active Germ-Line Replicator, and the final three or four chapters in which the central thesis of the book is explored. Dawkins’ explores these and similar topics with his characteristic clarity, and the reader is exposed to the full power of evolutionary thinking.

The main idea of this book is rather simple: Genetic determinism, group selection, green beards etc. Dawkins writes in such a way that bees and termites seem to be specialized cells that operate outside of the body. In conducting this argument, Dawkins aims to strengthen the case for a gene-centric view of life, to the point where it is recognized that the organism itself needs to be explained.

The first male didn’t even think about putting richard dawkins the extended phenotype a nursery! The first book in richard dawkins the extended phenotype series was written for the layman and really richard dawkins the extended phenotype my perspective on evolution. The silk has nothing to do with the phenotype of the caddis that might cause a mate to choose it, but the way the silk is used will ultimately play a deciding role.

Please review our privacy policy. A common example is the manipulation of host behaviour by cuckoo chicks, which elicit intensive feeding by the parasitized host birds.

Extended Phenotype

The chicks will then begin a rapid begging call or continually have their mouth opened, both signal stimuli richard dawkins the extended phenotype they need feeding. Q Rev Biol Still, the debate at the ESF meeting shifted to discussing whether the EP or niche construction is more important as an evolutionary driving force.

Dawkins states that richard dawkins the extended phenotype only ricyard about copies of themselves, not about the welfare of the body-vehicle for all the genes. The riichard will first be forced to drop from the canopy and find specific conditions where it will clamp down on the underside of a leaf vain, known as the death grip, in conditions that are moist, humid, and relatively warm perfect conditions for fungal growth.


He is implicitly saying: Once the fungus has absorbed all the nutrients phenotypd the ant it will dawkis a stalk from the ants head and disperse its spores. Gould Beyond Belief Richard Dawkins: Dawkin’s thoroughness of citation and his achievement of weaving such an intricate contextual net by referring and commenting on so many other sources. The most important message of the book was to change our perspective of the individual organism selfishly acting for its own benefit to focus on the genes within organisms extending their influence to the outside world, even beyond the skin and outer tissues they richard dawkins the extended phenotype contained in, to manipulate their environment, thereby richard dawkins the extended phenotype their chances of being propagated.

The idea is that the richard dawkins the extended phenotype effects of genes have no reason to stop at the boundaries of the specific individual. The language of the book cannot be called simple and it takes some efforts to follow the authors reasoning, but these efforts will reap big reward. The [extended phenotype] has certainly been the stimulus for a great deal of research ricgard recently, as the tools of genomics and proteomics provide fresh evidence of its importance.

Genes and Memes

Dawkins also adds that this sort of extended behavior within one species is applied toward other species through parasitic, manipulative behavior. Sep 25, Anatoly v01 rated it really liked it Shelves: Therefore, the host’s behavioral richard dawkins the extended phenotype is changed by the continual searching of food to feed “her” young. Inclusive fitness is calculated from an individual’s own reproductive success plus his effects on the reproductive success of his relatives, each one weighed by the phenotyoe coefficient of relatedness.

That is all that we ever mean by a gene ‘for’ red rkchard. I hope the reader of these lines notices that this was just a commentary on my richard dawkins the extended phenotype enjoyment of reading an old richard dawkins the extended phenotype, not a judgement of the book’s quality.

Commenting on the wiki pages do not count as participation credit on the wiki. Its thesis is that animals regulate their own numbers behaviourally, rather than being passively regulated by food.

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