15 Mar Theodolite surveying is a method in which traversing is done by magnetic bearing, included angle and direct angle method. A theodolite /θiːˈɒdəlaɪt/ is a precision optical instrument for measuring angles between designated visible points in the horizontal and vertical planes. THEODOLITE TRAVERSING OBJECTIVES To know the advantages of bearing and their use in various survey works. To be familiar with the checks and errors.

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For example, where a conduit must pass under a river, a vertical shaft on each side of the river might theodolihe connected by a horizontal tunnel. The term diopter was sometimes used in old texts as a synonym for theodolite. Their existence is taken into account in the choice of measurement procedure in order to eliminate their effect on the measurement results of the theodolite. In modern electronic theodolites, the readout of the horizontal and traversibg circles is usually done with a rotary encoder.

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The Ramsden theodolite was used over the next few years to map the whole of southern Britain by triangulation. Early attempts at this were made in the opening years of the nineteenth century, but the instruments and procedures weren’t theodilite developed until a hundred years later.

The meridian is undefined at the geographic poles. Photogrammetric block adjustment of stereo pairs of aerial photographs is a modern, three-dimensional variant. This method was extensively used in World War II and thereafter, and was gradually replaced by radio and GPS measuring systems from the s onward.

Prior to the theodolite, instruments such as the gromageometric square and various other graduated circles see circumferentor and semicircles see graphometer were used to obtain either vertical or horizontal angle measurements.


Nowadays GPS antennas used for geodetic positioning use a similar mounting system. Many modern theodolites are equipped with integrated electro-optical distance measuring devices, generally infrared based, allowing the measurement in one step of complete three-dimensional vectors theodollite in instrument-defined polar co-ordinates, which can then be transformed to a pre-existing co-ordinate system in the area by means of a sufficient number of control points.


It was only a matter of time before someone put two measuring devices into a single instrument that could measure both angles simultaneously. The theodolite or the target can traversinng rapidly removed from, or socketed into, the forced centering plate with sub-millimeter precision.

Theodolite – Wikipedia

The theodolite became a modern, accurate instrument inwith the introduction of Jesse Ramsden ‘s famous great theodolitetrxversing he created using a very accurate dividing engine of his own design.

These produce signals indicating the tbeodolite and azimuth of the telescope which are traversng to a microprocessor. This page was last edited on 7 Novemberat A gyrotheodolite cannot be used at the poles where the Earth’s axis is precisely perpendicular to the horizontal axis of the spinner, indeed it is not normally used within about 15 degrees of the pole because the east-west component of the Earth’s rotation is insufficient to obtain reliable results.

It is also known as the universal instrument because of its use. Unlike an artificial horizon or inertial navigation system, a gyrotheodolite cannot be relocated while it is operating.

Temporary adjustments are a set of operations necessary in order to make a theodolite ready for travedsing observations at a station. In Digges’s book, the name “theodolite” described an instrument for measuring horizontal angles only.

A gyrotheodolite will function at the equator and in both the northern and southern hemispheres. By using this travsrsing, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The balloons are carefully constructed and filled, so their rate of ascent can be known fairly accurately in advance. Let’s see this methods in detail below.

This was first done by Jonathan Sisson in Despite the many German instrument builders at the turn of the century, there were no usable German theodolites available. The Cyclopaedia compares ” graphometer ” to “half-theodolite”. Thank you for commenting.



Instrument like a theodolite is very useful for engineer and this methods is very interesting. Such instruments are “intelligent” theodolites called self-registering tacheometers or colloquially ” total stations “, and perform all the necessary angular and distance calculations, and the results or raw data can be downloaded to external processors, such as ruggedized laptopsPDAs or programmable calculators [17].

The modern digital theodolites have electronic displays.

It features a vertical circle which is graduated through the full degrees and a telescope that could “flip over” “transit the scope”. Parameshwar Paramatma 22 March at The traditional use has been for land surveyingbut they are also used extensively for building and infrastructure constructionand some specialized applications such as meteorology and rocket launching.

The first occurrence of the word “theodolite” is found in the surveying textbook A geometric practice named Pantometria by Leonard Diggeswhich was published posthumously by his son, Thomas Digges. The optical level is sometimes mistaken for a theodolite, but it does not measure vertical angles, and is used only for levelling on a horizontal plane.

Point of Beginning PoB. The height of the reference point of the theodolite—or the target—above the ground benchmark must be measured precisely. With continuing refinements, instruments steadily evolved into the modern theodolite used by surveyors today. An alidade on the base was used to sight an object for horizontal angle measurement, and a second alidade was mounted on the vertical semicircle. A gyrotheodolite is used when the north-south reference bearing of the meridian is required in the absence of astronomical star sights.

Really very useful about surveying and traversing. By using fast angle method, one can find lent of traverse leg and magnetic bearing but the angle between line cannot be measured.